Jump to navigation Jump to search A sitz bath or hip bath is a bath in which a person sits in water up to the hips. Such hip baths were originally a European custom, although modern sitz baths are used mainly for therapeutic purposes. A sitz bath may be created simply by filling a bathtub with some water and sitting in it for a few minutes. Alternatively, a large basin can be used. There are also special devices that fit into toilet bowls. Sitz baths may either be warm or cool, or alternating between the two. Substances such as salt, baking soda, or vinegar may be added to the water. Warm baths are recommended for reducing the itching, pain and discomfort associated with conditions such as hemorrhoids and genital problems. 20 minutes or until the water cools down. Cool sitz baths are said to be helpful in easing constipation, inflammation and vaginal discharge, and, in cases of fecal or urinary incontinence, in toning the muscles.
For most purposes sitz baths with water are sufficient, though some people prefer to use saline water or water mixed with baking soda or mustard. The use of such additives helps to reduce infections. Sitz baths are considered very low risk. Individuals prone to such occurrences are advised to have someone standing by to assist them. Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the class of double sulfates of aluminium. For the specific representative compound, see potassium alum. X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium. Other alums are named after the monovalent ion, such as sodium alum and ammonium alum.
Most industrial flocculation done with “alum” actually uses aluminium sulfate. In medicine, “alum” may also refer to aluminium hydroxide gel used as a vaccine adjuvant. Aluminium-based alums are named by the monovalent cation.
Aluminium-based alums have a number of common chemical properties. They are soluble in water, have a sweetish taste, react acid to litmus, and crystallize in regular octahedra. Alums crystallize in one of three different crystal structures. These classes are called α-, β- and γ-alums. The solubility of the various alums in water varies greatly, sodium alum being readily soluble in water, while caesium and rubidium alums are only sparingly soluble. The various solubilities are shown in the following table.
Aluminium-based alums have been used since antiquity, and are still important in many industrial processes. The most widely used alum is potassium alum. It was used since antiquity as a flocculant to clarify turbid liquids, as a mordant in dying, and in tanning. Sodium alum is used in substitution to potassium alum in baking powders. Ammonium alum has a few niche uses. Other alums have mostly research interest.
This is because alum does not react chemically to any significant degree with any of these metals, but will corrode steel. A detailed description of a substance called alumen occurs in Pliny the Elder’s Natural History. Pliny wrote that different substances were distinguished by the name of alumen, but they were all characterised by a certain degree of astringency, and were all employed in dyeing and medicine. Pliny describes several other species of alumen but it is not clear as to what these minerals are. The alumen of the ancients then, was not always potassium alum, not even an alkali aluminum sulfate. The production of potassium alum from alunite is archaeologically attested on the island Lesbos.
This site was abandoned in the 7th century but dates back at least to the 2nd century CE. The western desert of Egypt was a major source of alum substitutes in antiquity. Therefore, through the Middle Ages, alchemists and other writers do not seem to have discriminated the two salts accurately from each other. In the early 1700s, Georg Ernst Stahl claimed that reacting sulfuric acid with limestone produced a sort of alum. Marggraf also showed that perfect crystals with properties of alum can be obtained by dissolving alumina in sulfuric acid and adding potash or ammonia to the concentrated solution. The composition of common alum was finally determined by Louis Vauquelin in 1797. Some alums occur as minerals, the most important being alunite. Typical recipes involve combining aluminium sulfate and the sulfate monovalent cation. Many trivalent metals are capable of forming alums.
H2O, where X is an alkali metal or ammonium, M is a trivalent metal, and n often is 12. In general, alums are formed more easily when the alkali metal atom is larger. This rule was first stated by Locke in 1902, who found that if a trivalent metal does not form a caesium alum, it neither will form an alum with any other alkali metal or with ammonium. In some cases, solid solutions of alums with different monovalent and trivalent cations may occur. In addition to the alums, which are dodecahydrates, double sulfates and selenates of univalent and trivalent cations occur with other degrees of hydration. These classes include differing, but overlapping, combinations of ions. A is a univalent cation, and B a divalent metal ion. A is a univalent cation and B is a divalent metal ion are referred to as langbeinites, after the prototypical potassium magnesium sulfate. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Making Metal Jewelry.
Perseus Digital Library at Tufts University. Archontidou 2005, “Un atelier de preparation de l’alun a partir de l’alunite dans l’isle de Lesbos” in L’alun de Mediterranée. Vitriolum, Creta præcipitari potest, ut omissa metallica sua substantia, aluminosum evadat. Chymische Untersuchungen, welche fürnehmlich von der Lithogeognosia oder Erkäntniß und Bearbeitung der gemeinen einfacheren Steine und Erden ingleichen von Feuer und Licht handeln . Christian Friedrich Voss, volume 1, p. Mémoires de l’Académie des sciences et belles-lettres de Berlin, pp.
In Opuscula physica et chemica, I. Analytical Essays Towards Promoting the Chemical Knowledge of Mineral Substances. His finding of potassium in leucite appears on pp. Sur la nature de l’Alun du commerce, sur l’existence de la potasse dans ce sel, et sur diverses combinaisons simples ou triples de l’alumine avec l’acide sulfurique”. In Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 1st series, volume 22, pages 258-279. Observations sur leur nature et leur usage”.
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