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Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. It is a condition wherein cells mutate and increase number, with changes in their morphology and without any function. Cancer is a poorly understood disease that robs its victims of proper functioning, the ability to perform activities of daily living, and more often than not, brings significant depression. Causes Any cell in the body has the potential to mutate and become a cancer cell.

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However, a healthy immune system is able to kill these cells before they can cause any aberration in the body. The etiology of cancer is unknown and anything that has the potential to cause cellular DNA mutation has the capacity to cause malignancy. The etiology varies across the specific types of cancer on virtually all cells of the body. Certain extrinsic triggers may contribute to their activation. One thing is sure though, cancer runs in the family. Genetic Screening may detect presence of these oncogenes. It has been clearly shown through various studies that cigarette smoke, even second-hand smoke increases the risk of cancers of the lungs, oral cavity, lips, esophagus, and larynx.

Smokers who inhale the smoke have an increased risk for lung cancer as the smoke reaches the lungs. Also, a diet low in vegetables and other greens significantly increase the risk for colon cancer. It is important to control your weight too. It is recommended to have at least 150 minutes of non-vigorous, or 75 minutes of vigorous exercise per week. Ultraviolet light alters the DNA of cells and this causes malignancies if not controlled by the immune system. It is important to live in a clean environment to be able to avoid these triggers. Cancer symptoms depend on the severity and specific type of cancer. Most cancers however are asymptomatic and will only produces signs once they are at advances stages. Early detection and treatment is the key to cancer survival.

Management Management of Cancer depends on the specific stage and site of the cancer. Prevention There is no sure way to prevent cancer as it is caused by various factors. Each of the 1 trillion cells of the body has the potential to be a cancer cell. However, there are some things we can do to drastically reduce this risk: eating a proper diet rich in fiber and vegetables, having regular exercise, avoidance of triggers, living in a cleanenvironment and having regular screening drastically reduces the risks of cancer and its complications. Please wait while the activity loads. If this activity does not load, try refreshing your browser.

Please visit using a browser with javascript enabled. Choose the letter of the correct answer. When teaching the client about this drug, the nurse should emphasize the importance of reporting which adverse reaction immediately? The client must report changes in visual acuity immediately because this adverse effect may be irreversible. Tamoxifen isn’t associated with hearing loss. Although the drug may cause anorexia, headache, and hot flashes, the client need not report these adverse effects immediately because they don’t warrant a change in therapy. The home health care nurse is caring for a male client with cancer and the client is complaining of acute pain. The appropriate nursing assessment of the client’s pain would include which of the following?

The client’s self-report is a critical component of pain assessment. The nurse should ask the client about the description of the pain and listen carefully to the client’s words used to describe the pain. The nurse’s impression of the client’s pain is not appropriate in determining the client’s level of pain. Nonverbal cues from the client are important but are not the most appropriate pain assessment measure. Nurse Mickey is caring for a client who is postoperative following a pelvic exenteration and the physician changes the client’s diet from NPO status to clear liquids. The nurse makes which priority assessment before administering the diet? The client is kept NPO until peristalsis returns, usually in 4 to 6 days.

When signs of bowel function return, clear fluids are given to the client. If no distention occurs, the diet is advanced as tolerated. The most important assessment is to assess bowel sounds before feeding the client. The nurse is caring for a female client experiencing neutropenia as a result of chemotherapy and develops a plan of care for the client. In the neutropenic client, meticulous hand hygiene education is implemented for the client, family, visitors, and staff. Not all visitors are restricted, but the client is protected from persons with known infections. Invasive measures such as an indwelling urinary catheter should be avoided to prevent infections. Rhian, a community health nurse is instructing a group of female clients about breast self-examination. The breast self-examination should be performed monthly 7 days after the onset of the menstrual period.

Performing the examination weekly is not recommended. At the onset of menstruation and during ovulation, hormonal changes occur that may alter breast tissue. Nurse Kate is reviewing the complications of colonization with a client who has microinvasive cervical cancer. Which complication, if identified by the client, indicates a need for further teaching? Conization procedure involves removal of a cone-shaped area of the cervix. Complications of the procedure include hemorrhage, infection, and cervical stenosis. Ovarian perforation is not a complication.

A female client is hospitalized for insertion of an internal cervical radiation implant. While giving care, the nurse finds the radiation implant in the bed. Pick up the implant with long-handled forceps and place it in a lead container. A lead container and long-handled forceps should be kept in the client’s room at all times during internal radiation therapy. If the implant becomes dislodged, the nurse should pick up the implant with long-handled forceps and place it in the lead container. Options A, B, and C are inaccurate interventions. Antimetabolites are a diverse group of antineoplastic agents that interfere with various metabolic actions of the cell. M phase of the cell cycle. S phase of the cell cycle.

Antimetabolites act during the S phase of the cell cycle, contributing to cell destruction or preventing cell replication. They’re most effective against rapidly proliferating cancers. Miotic inhibitors interfere with cell division or mitosis during the M phase of the cell cycle. A male client is admitted to the hospital with a suspected diagnosis of Hodgkin’s disease. Which assessment findings would the nurse expect to note specifically in the client? Hodgkin’s disease is a chronic progressive neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue characterized by the painless enlargement of lymph nodes with progression to extralymphatic sites, such as the spleen and liver. Weight loss is most likely to be noted.

Fatigue and weakness may occur but are not related significantly to the disease. During chemotherapy, an oncology client has a nursing diagnosis of impaired oral mucous membrane related to decreased nutrition and immunosuppression secondary to the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. Which nursing intervention is most likely to decrease the pain of stomatitis? To decrease the pain of stomatitis, the nurse should provide a solution of hydrogen peroxide and water for the client to use as a mouth rinse. Commercially prepared mouthwashes contain alcohol and may cause dryness and irritation of the oral mucosa. The nurse also may administer viscous lidocaine or systemic analgesics as prescribed. A cervical radiation implant is placed in the client for treatment of cervical cancer. The nurse initiates what most appropriate activity order for this client?

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