Before and after comparison of weight loss 2015-06-25. A depiction of an individual’s weight loss. Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue. Intentional weight loss is the loss of total body mass as a result of efforts to improve fitness and health, or to change appearance through slimming. Weight loss occurs when the body is expending more energy in work and metabolism than it is absorbing from food or other nutrients.
It will then use stored reserves from fat or muscle, gradually leading to weight loss. Low-calorie diets are also referred to as balanced percentage diets. Due to their minimal detrimental effects, these types of diets are most commonly recommended by nutritionists. In addition to restricting calorie intake, a balanced diet also regulates macronutrient consumption. Though hypothesized that supplementation of vitamin D may help, studies do not support this. The majority of dieters regain weight over the long term. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans those who achieve and manage a healthy weight do so most successfully by being careful to consume just enough calories to meet their needs, and being physically active.
The least intrusive weight loss methods, and those most often recommended, are adjustments to eating patterns and increased physical activity, generally in the form of exercise. An increase in fiber intake is also recommended for regulating bowel movements. Other methods of weight loss include use of drugs and supplements that decrease appetite, block fat absorption, or reduce stomach volume. Virtual gastric band uses hypnosis to make the brain think the stomach is smaller than it really is and hence lower the amount of food ingested. This brings as a consequence weight reduction. In order for weight loss to be permanent, changes in diet and lifestyle must be permanent as well. Short-term dieting has not been shown to produce either long term weight loss or better health, and may even be counterproductive. The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
There is a substantial market for products which promise to make weight loss easier, quicker, cheaper, more reliable, or less painful. 55 billion was spent annually in the US on weight-loss products and services, including medical procedures and pharmaceuticals, with weight-loss centers taking between 6 and 12 percent of total annual expenditure. 6 billion a year was spent on weight-loss supplements. Unintentional weight loss may result from loss of body fats, loss of body fluids, muscle atrophy, or even a combination of these. Disease processes, changes in metabolism, hormonal changes, medications or other treatments, disease- or treatment-related dietary changes, or reduced appetite associated with a disease or treatment can also cause unintentional weight loss. Continuing weight loss may deteriorate into wasting, a vaguely defined condition called cachexia. Cachexia differs from starvation in part because it involves a systemic inflammatory response.
Serious weight loss may reduce quality of life, impair treatment effectiveness or recovery, worsen disease processes and be a risk factor for high mortality rates. In addition, malnutrition can lead to vitamin and other deficiencies and to inactivity, which in turn may pre-dispose to other problems, such as pressure sores. Unintentional weight loss can be the characteristic leading to diagnosis of diseases such as cancer and type 1 diabetes. 65 is at risk of malnutrition. Poor appetite can be a direct symptom of an illness, or an illness could make eating painful or induce nausea. Illness can also cause food aversion. Inability to eat can result from: diminished consciousness or confusion, or physical problems affecting the arm or hands, swallowing or chewing. Eating restrictions may also be imposed as part of treatment or investigations.
Lack of food can result from: poverty, difficulty in shopping or cooking, and poor quality meals. This can result from conditions that affect the digestive system. Changes to metabolic demands can be caused by illness, surgery and organ dysfunction. Losses from the gastrointestinal can occur because of symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea, as well as fistulae and stomas. There can also be losses from drains, including nasogastric tubes. Other losses: Conditions such as burns can be associated with losses such as skin exudates. About one-third of unintentional weight loss cases are secondary to malignancy. People with HIV often experience weight loss, and it is associated with poorer outcomes.
Wasting syndrome is an AIDS-defining condition. Some infectious diseases can cause weight loss. Fungal illnesses, endocarditis, many parasitic diseases, AIDS, and some other subacute or occult infections may cause weight loss. Patients who have uremia often have poor or absent appetite, vomiting and nausea. Cardiovascular disease, especially congestive heart failure, may cause unexplained weight loss. Medical treatment can directly or indirectly cause weight loss, impairing treatment effectiveness and recovery that can lead to further weight loss in a vicious cycle. Many patients will be in pain and have a loss of appetite after surgery. Part of the body’s response to surgery is to direct energy to wound healing, which increases the body’s overall energy requirements. Early post-operative nutrition is a part of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery protocols.
These protocols also include carbohydrate loading in the 24 hours before surgery, but earlier nutritional interventions have not been shown to have a significant impact. Some medications can cause weight loss, while others can cause weight gain. Social conditions such as poverty, social isolation and inability to get or prepare preferred foods can cause unintentional weight loss, and this may be particularly common in older people. Nutrient intake can also be affected by culture, family and belief systems. Loss of hope, status or social contact and spiritual distress can cause depression, which may be associated with reduced nutrition, as can fatigue. Some popular beliefs attached to weight loss have been shown to either have less effect on weight loss as commonly believed or are actively unhealthy. According to Harvard Health, the idea of metabolism being the “key to weight” is “part truth and part myth” as while metabolism does affect weight loss, external forces such as diet and exercise have an equal effect.
Obesity increases health risks, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, to name a few. Reduction of obesity lowers those risks. A 1-kg loss of body weight has been associated with an approximate 1-mm Hg drop in blood pressure. Screening for and management of obesity and overweight in adults”. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. Archived from the original on 4 March 2007. Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposity”.
Sleep might help dieters shed more fat”. Vitamin D supplementation and body weight status: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. The defence of body weight: A physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss”. World Health Organization recommends eating less processed food”. Choosing a safe and successful weight loss program”. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Weight control behaviors among adult men and women: Cause for concern? Hypnotizability and weight loss in obese subjects”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Hypnotizability as a factor in the hypnotic treatment of obesity”. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for obesity: A meta-analytic reappraisal”. Correlational, experimental psychopathology, component and outcome studies”. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy.
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