Paying attention to your phone instead of your surroundings is dangerous, especially while driving. Here are some creative and original answers: The chicken crossed the road. But why did the chicken cross the road? Glycerol can be made without peanut oil as well. Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss. Diarrhea can be prevented by improved sanitation, clean drinking water, and hand washing with soap.
7 to 5 billion cases of diarrhea occur per year. Diarrhea is defined by the World Health Organization as having three or more loose or liquid stools per day, or as having more stools than is normal for that person. Acute diarrhea is defined as an abnormally frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid fecal matter from the bowel, lasting less than 14 days, by World Gastroenterology Organization. Secretory diarrhea means that there is an increase in the active secretion, or there is an inhibition of absorption. There is little to no structural damage. Osmotic diarrhea occurs when too much water is drawn into the bowels.
If a person drinks solutions with excessive sugar or excessive salt, these can draw water from the body into the bowel and cause osmotic diarrhea. Exudative diarrhea occurs with the presence of blood and pus in the stool. Inflammatory diarrhea occurs when there is damage to the mucosal lining or brush border, which leads to a passive loss of protein-rich fluids and a decreased ability to absorb these lost fluids. Features of all three of the other types of diarrhea can be found in this type of diarrhea. If there is blood visible in the stools, it is also known as dysentery. The blood is a trace of an invasion of bowel tissue. Dysentery is a symptom of, among others, Shigella, Entamoeba histolytica, and Salmonella.
Diarrheal disease may have a negative impact on both physical fitness and mental development. Early childhood malnutrition resulting from any cause reduces physical fitness and work productivity in adults,” and diarrhea is a primary cause of childhood malnutrition. Diarrhea can cause electrolyte imbalances, renal impairment, dehydration, and defective immune system responses. Diagram of the human gastrointestinal tract. Chronic diarrhea can be the part of the presentations of a number of chronic medical conditions affecting the intestine. There are many causes of infectious diarrhea, which include viruses, bacteria and parasites. Infectious diarrhea is frequently referred to as gastroenteritis. Escherichia coli are also a frequent cause. In the elderly, particularly those who have been treated with antibiotics for unrelated infections, a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile often causes severe diarrhea.
Other infectious agents, such as parasites or bacterial toxins, may exacerbate symptoms. In sanitary living conditions where there is ample food and a supply of clean water, an otherwise healthy person usually recovers from viral infections in a few days. Malabsorption is the inability to absorb food fully, mostly from disorders in the small bowel, but also due to maldigestion from diseases of the pancreas. Ulcerative colitis is marked by chronic bloody diarrhea and inflammation mostly affects the distal colon near the rectum. Crohn’s disease typically affects fairly well demarcated segments of bowel in the colon and often affects the end of the small bowel. 3 days a week over the previous 3 months. Ischemic bowel disease: This usually affects older people and can be due to blocked arteries. Microscopic colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease where changes are only seen on histological examination of colonic biopsies.
Radiation enteropathy following treatment for pelvic and abdominal cancers. Poverty often leads to unhygienic living conditions, as in this community in the Indian Himalayas. Such conditions promote contraction of diarrheal diseases, as a result of poor sanitation and hygiene. Open defecation is a leading cause of infectious diarrhea leading to death. Poverty is a good indicator of the rate of infectious diarrhea in a population. This association does not stem from poverty itself, but rather from the conditions under which impoverished people live.
The absence of certain resources compromises the ability of the poor to defend themselves against infectious diarrhea. One of the most common causes of infectious diarrhea is a lack of clean water. Often, improper fecal disposal leads to contamination of groundwater. This can lead to widespread infection among a population, especially in the absence of water filtration or purification. Human feces contains a variety of potentially harmful human pathogens. Proper nutrition is important for health and functioning, including the prevention of infectious diarrhea. It is especially important to young children who do not have a fully developed immune system. Some medications, such as the penicillum can cause diarrhea.
Over 700 medications are known to cause diarrhea. According to two researchers, Nesse and Williams, diarrhea may function as an evolved expulsion defense mechanism. As a result, if it is stopped, there might be a delay in recovery. Associated non-cramping abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, etc. In institutions such as hospitals, child care centers, or geriatric and convalescent homes. A severity score is used to aid diagnosis in children.
Such improvements might include for example use of water filters, provision of high-quality piped water and sewer connections. In institutions, communities, and households, interventions that promote hand washing with soap lead to significant reductions in the incidence of diarrhea. Basic sanitation techniques can have a profound effect on the transmission of diarrheal disease. Given that water contamination is a major means of transmitting diarrheal disease, efforts to provide clean water supply and improved sanitation have the potential to dramatically cut the rate of disease incidence. Chlorine treatment of water, for example, has been shown to reduce both the risk of diarrheal disease, and of contamination of stored water with diarrheal pathogens. Immunization against the pathogens that cause diarrheal disease is a viable prevention strategy, however it does require targeting certain pathogens for vaccination. A rotavirus vaccine decrease the rates of diarrhea in a population. Dietary deficiencies in developing countries can be combated by promoting better eating practices. Zinc supplementation proved successful showing a significant decrease in the incidence of diarrheal disease compared to a control group.
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