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Jump to navigation Jump to search “Hemorrhage” and “Haemorrhage” redirect here. For the deliberate extraction of blood, see Bloodletting. Bleeding, also known as haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system. A subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common and relatively minor post-LASIK complication. The endoscopic image of a type of stomach cancer known as linitis plastica. The leather bottle-like appearance can also cause bleeding as can be seen in this image. There is typically no change in vital signs and fluid resuscitation is not usually necessary. The limit of the body’s compensation is reached and aggressive resuscitation is required to prevent death. This system is basically the same as used in the staging of hypovolemic shock.
Individuals in excellent physical and cardiovascular shape may have more effective compensatory mechanisms before experiencing cardiovascular collapse. These patients may look deceptively stable, with minimal derangements in vital signs, while having poor peripheral perfusion. The World Health Organization made a standardized grading scale to measure the severity of bleeding. Ovarian bleeding – this is a potentially catastrophic and not so rare complication among lean patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing transvaginal oocyte retrieval. Bleeding arises due to either traumatic injury, underlying medical condition, or a combination. Traumatic bleeding is caused by some type of injury. There are different types of wounds which may cause traumatic bleeding. Abrasion – Also called a graze, this is caused by transverse action of a foreign object against the skin, and usually does not penetrate below the epidermis. Excoriation – In common with Abrasion, this is caused by mechanical destruction of the skin, although it usually has an underlying medical cause.
Hematoma – Caused by damage to a blood vessel that in turn causes blood to collect under the skin. Laceration – Irregular wound caused by blunt impact to soft tissue overlying hard tissue or tearing such as in childbirth. In some instances, this can also be used to describe an incision. Incision – A cut into a body tissue or organ, such as by a scalpel, made during surgery. Puncture Wound – Caused by an object that penetrated the skin and underlying layers, such as a nail, needle or knife. Contusion – Also known as a bruise, this is a blunt trauma damaging tissue under the surface of the skin.
Crushing Injuries – Caused by a great or extreme amount of force applied over a period of time. The extent of a crushing injury may not immediately present itself. Ballistic Trauma – Caused by a projectile weapon such as a firearm. The pattern of injury, evaluation and treatment will vary with the mechanism of the injury. Wounds are often not straight and unbroken skin may hide significant injury. Penetrating trauma follows the course of the injurious device. As the energy is applied in a more focused fashion, it requires less energy to cause significant injury. Any body organ, including bone and brain, can be injured and bleed.
The underlying scientific basis for blood clotting and hemostasis is discussed in detail in the articles, coagulation, hemostasis and related articles. The discussion here is limited to the common practical aspects of blood clot formation which manifest as bleeding. Some medical conditions can also make patients susceptible to bleeding. Such conditions either are, or cause, bleeding diatheses. Platelets are small blood components that form a plug in the blood vessel wall that stops bleeding. Platelets also produce a variety of substances that stimulate the production of a blood clot. There are several named coagulation factors that interact in a complex way to form blood clots, as discussed in the article on coagulation.
Deficiencies of coagulation factors are associated with clinical bleeding. This medication needs to be closely monitored as the bleeding risk can be markedly increased by interactions with other medications. Warfarin acts by inhibiting the production of Vitamin K in the gut. Deficiencies of platelet function may require platelet transfusion while deficiencies of clotting factors may require transfusion of either fresh frozen plasma or specific clotting factors, such as Factor VIII for patients with hemophilia. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Manning, JE “Fluid and Blood Resuscitation” in Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. Risk and crisis management in intraoperative hemorrhage: Human factors in hemorrhagic critical events.
Webert KE, Cook RJ, Sigouin CS, et al. The risk of bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Ovarian hemorrhage after transvaginal ultrasonographically guided oocyte aspiration: a potentially catastrophic and not so rare complication among lean patients with polycystic ovary syndrome”. Follow the link for more information. Hemorrhoids, also called piles, are vascular structures in the anal canal. While the exact cause of hemorrhoids remains unknown, a number of factors which increase pressure in the abdomen are believed to be involved. This may include constipation, diarrhea and sitting on the toilet for a long time.
Often, no specific treatment is needed. Initial measures consist of increasing fiber intake, drinking fluids to maintain hydration, NSAIDs to help with pain, and rest. Males and females are both affected with about equal frequency. If not thrombosed, external hemorrhoids may cause few problems. However, when thrombosed, hemorrhoids may be very painful. Internal hemorrhoids usually present with painless, bright red rectal bleeding during or following a bowel movement. The exact cause of symptomatic hemorrhoids is unknown.
During pregnancy, pressure from the fetus on the abdomen and hormonal changes cause the hemorrhoidal vessels to enlarge. The birth of the baby also leads to increased intra-abdominal pressures. Pregnant women rarely need surgical treatment, as symptoms usually resolve after delivery. Hemorrhoid cushions are a part of normal human anatomy and become a pathological disease only when they experience abnormal changes. There are three main cushions present in the normal anal canal. Sinusoids do not have muscle tissue in their walls, as veins do.
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Analyses are unanimous in concluding that there is insufficient evidence to non bleeding internal hemorrhoids icd 9 low, pada bagian ini rasa gatal tersebut dapat disebabkan oleh jamur dermatofita atau candida.