The ascending colon is the part of the colon located between the cecum and the transverse colon. The ascending colon is smaller in calibre than the cecum from where it starts. Sometimes the peritoneum completely invests it and forms a distinct but narrow mesocolon. It is in relation, in front, with the convolutions of the ileum and the abdominal walls. Parasympathetic innervation to the ascending colon is supplied by the vagus nerve. Sympathetic innervation is supplied by the thoracic splanchnic nerves.
This gallery of anatomic features needs cleanup to abide by the medical manual of style. Front view of the thoracic and abdominal viscera. Horizontal disposition of the peritoneum in the lower part of the abdomen. Interior of the cecum and the lower end of ascending colon, showing colic valve. Transverse section through the middle of the first lumbar vertebra, showing the relations of the pancreas. The relations of the kidneys from behind. Deficient Pms2, ERCC1, Ku86, CcOI in field defects during progression to colon cancer”.
Anatomy figure: 37:06-08 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center – “The large intestine. Anatomy posture and body mechanics 08. Follow the link for more information. Hemorrhoids, also called piles, are vascular structures in the anal canal. While the exact cause of hemorrhoids remains unknown, a number of factors which increase pressure in the abdomen are believed to be involved. This may include constipation, diarrhea and sitting on the toilet for a long time. Often, no specific treatment is needed. Initial measures consist of increasing fiber intake, drinking fluids to maintain hydration, NSAIDs to help with pain, and rest.
Males and females are both affected with about equal frequency. If not thrombosed, external hemorrhoids may cause few problems. However, when thrombosed, hemorrhoids may be very painful. Internal hemorrhoids usually present with painless, bright red rectal bleeding during or following a bowel movement. The exact cause of symptomatic hemorrhoids is unknown. During pregnancy, pressure from the fetus on the abdomen and hormonal changes cause the hemorrhoidal vessels to enlarge. The birth of the baby also leads to increased intra-abdominal pressures. Pregnant women rarely need surgical treatment, as symptoms usually resolve after delivery.
Hemorrhoid cushions are a part of normal human anatomy and become a pathological disease only when they experience abnormal changes. There are three main cushions present in the normal anal canal. Sinusoids do not have muscle tissue in their walls, as veins do. This set of blood vessels is known as the hemorrhoidal plexus. Hemorrhoid cushions are important for continence. Hemorrhoids are typically diagnosed by physical examination.
A visual examination of the anus and surrounding area may diagnose external or prolapsed hemorrhoids. Internal hemorrhoids originate above the dentate line. They are covered by columnar epithelium, which lacks pain receptors. Grade IV: Prolapse with inability to be manually reduced. External hemorrhoids occur below the dentate or pectinate line. They are covered proximally by anoderm and distally by skin, both of which are sensitive to pain and temperature. Many anorectal problems, including fissures, fistulae, abscesses, colorectal cancer, rectal varices, and itching have similar symptoms and may be incorrectly referred to as hemorrhoids. Other conditions that produce an anal mass include skin tags, anal warts, rectal prolapse, polyps, and enlarged anal papillae.
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